In order to give the users of The European Nudge Networks database of nudges a way to distinguish tried and testet nudges from mere ideas about behavioural interventions, we have created a five star rating system. It makes it possible for you to limit your search to interventions that have been described in a report or to only be presented with the interventions that has been implemented permanently into society. The evaluation of the interventions is based on a review of the available information about the specific intervention. That means that every example of a nudge that you find here has been read and approved by experienced behaviour architects with solid understanding of the field and the theory that underpins the nudge approach.
Nudges are cross-sectional, but good examples of implementation of nudges show up in different sectors. In order to help you look for the nudges that you can best relate to, or be inspired by, we give you the option of sorting our collection via sectors. Sectors is to be understood in a wide sense, and a nudge can be in several sectors at once. For example can an intervention at a buffet both be in Health and Food. But its all for your convenience.
Insights is the part of an intervention that shouldn’t make behaviour change (according to standart economics) but does anyway. As Behavioural Economics, Social Psychology and Cognitive Psychology teaches us, people don’t always act in accordance with their stated preferences or remember their appointments. But if you leverage the insight that somethings Salience is important for the way people behave, then you might be able to get more people to make their appointment on time with a text message a few days ahead. At Tenudge.eu you can sort our nudge collection via the insights they leverage.
The first star is distributed to a mere theoretical description of a possible nudge. The description has to be theoretical sound according to acknowledged academical groundwork regarding the field of applied behavioural science.
The second star is distributed to a nudge thats has both the theoretical description as well as an experimental application in the real world.
The third star is distributed to a nudge where an accessible report is provided. This report has to include documentation of the method and results in accordance with scientific standarts.
The fourth star is distributed to a project with a subsequent written academic publication.
The fifth star is distributed to a project that has been implemented (either temporarily or permanent) into society.
The Sector is the Situation When we evaluate a Nudge we consider which situation the nudge is designed to work in. Since Nudges function because of the way people think all the time, and not just when they deal with healthcare or money, Nudges are not sector specific. But it can however be easier to see how Nudges kan benefit you, if you see how others like you use them. Because you are sector specific, so is our database. But you might find a Nudge that fits your needs, as inspiration, or as guide for future research, in a sector that you don’t usually identify with.
Here you will find a short description of the most prominent insights used in the database. We have made it possible to sort our database by Insight, so that you can discover the wide range of applications that can be achieved with the different kinds of interventions. Not everything in the insights list is solutions, some are consistent problems in human behaviour like lack of selv control.
In some choices the default option influences the final choice. This is expected in choices where the different options are equally important or unimportant, but its effects have been shown to go far beyond that of indifferent choices. Among the most prominent examples are the choice of organ donation. People in general report very strong feelings about the subject, in both directions, yet they are highly influenced by the default option i reality.
Hyperbolic Discounting, is the practice of valuing certain things differently depending on their position in time. When presentet with the choice of 100 $ tomorrow or 150 $ in one year, more people than expected would choose the option closest in time.
Inertia describes the tendency to keep doing or not doing, what you have done, despite evidence that it might not be the best thing for you.
Priming covers a large field of different interventions. This is because priming effects are among the most famous kinds of interventions, and have thus been tested in many different settings. Priming is a preparation of the subject, sometimes without their knowledge, to favor one choice over another, or display a certain kind of behaviour.
Procrastination is the very human tendency to postpone an important task in favor of an easier one.
Salience covers the insight that people react to things they are acutely aware of. And that awareness is limited. As such one can use different means of making the the reasons for picking the preferred choice more salient, and then get more people to choose it.
The human ability to control ones own actions, and in some cases give in to temptations that makes people choose options they dont want in the long run. Self control can be lost, but it can also be boosted by an intervention at the right time.
Social norms cover the (mostly) unwritten rules of a culture or society. People can be motivated to do a lot of things simply to adhere to their social norms. This includes using less electricity if they are convinced that their neighbors are using less, and generally follow the lead of the majority in certain situations.
Status Quo Bias
The Status quo bias is the tendency to stick to behaviour without giving it much thought. In some situations humans will stick to an already established behaviour, even though the cost of shifting is too low to influence a rational choice. Thus if the status quo is shifted, some people will tend to shift their behaviour with the status quo.